Vehicle Speed and Length Estimation Errors Using the Intelligent Transportation System with a Set of Anisotropic Magneto-Resistive (AMR) Sensors

Vytautas Markevicius , Dangirutis Navikas , Adam Idźkowski , Donatas Miklusis , Darius Andriukaitis , Algimantas Valinevicius , Mindaugas Zilys , Mindaugas Cepenas , Wojciech Walendziuk

Abstract

Seeking an effective method for estimating the speed and length of a car is still a challenge for engineers and scientists who work on intelligent transportation systems. This paper focuses on a self-developed system equipped with four anisotropic magneto-resistive (AMR) sensors which are placed on a road lane. The piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors are also mounted and used as a reference device. The methods applied in the research are well-known: the fixed threshold-based method and the adaptive two-extreme-peak detection method. However, the improved accuracy of estimating the length by using one of the methods, which is based on computing the difference quotient of a time-discrete signal (representing the changes in the magnitude of the magnetic field of the Earth), is observed. The obtained results, i.e., the speed and length of a vehicle, are presented for various values of the increment Δn used in numerical differentiation of magnetic field magnitude data. The results were achieved in real traffic conditions after analyzing a data set M = 290 of vehicle signatures. The accuracy was evaluated by calculating MAE (Mean Absolute Error), RMSE (Root Mean Squared Error) for different classes of vehicles. The MAE is within the range of 0.52 m–1.18 m when using the appropriate calibration factor. The results are dependent on the distance between sensors, the speed of vehicle and the signal processing method applied.
Author Vytautas Markevicius
Vytautas Markevicius,,
-
, Dangirutis Navikas
Dangirutis Navikas,,
-
, Adam Idźkowski (FEE/DTEPEEPE)
Adam Idźkowski,,
- Department of Theoretical Electrotechnics and Metrology
, Donatas Miklusis
Donatas Miklusis,,
-
, Darius Andriukaitis
Darius Andriukaitis,,
-
, Algimantas Valinevicius
Algimantas Valinevicius,,
-
, Mindaugas Zilys
Mindaugas Zilys,,
-
, Mindaugas Cepenas
Mindaugas Cepenas,,
-
, Wojciech Walendziuk (FEE/DTEPEEPE)
Wojciech Walendziuk,,
- Department of Theoretical Electrotechnics and Metrology
Journal seriesSensors, [SENSORS-BASEL], ISSN 1424-8220, e-ISSN 1424-3210, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2019
Vol19
No23
Pages1-16
Publication size in sheets0.75
Keywords in Englishmagnetic field; AMR sensors; piezoelectric PVDF sensors; vehicle speed detection; car length estimation; signal differentiation; Mean Absolute Error
ASJC Classification Biochemistry1303; Analytical Chemistry1602; Electrical and Electronic Engineering2208; Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics3107
DOIDOI:10.3390/s19235234
URL https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/19/23/5234
Internal identifierROC 19-20
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 12-02-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.393; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 3.031 (2) - 2018=3.302 (5)
Citation count*
Cite
busy
Share Share

Get link to the record


* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
Back
Confirmation
Are you sure?