Electronic Nose: Recent Developments in Gas Sensing and Molecular Mechanisms of Graphene Detection and Other Materials

Sylwia Orzechowska , Andrzej Mazurek , Renata Świsłocka , Włodzimierz Lewandowski


The aim of the study was to present the possibility of the sensitivity improvement of the electronic nose (e-nose) and to summarize the detection mechanisms of trace gas concentrations. Our main area of interest is graphene, however, for the better understanding of the sensing mechanisms, it is crucial to review other sensors of similar functions. On the basis of our previous research, we explained the detection mechanism which may stay behind the graphene sensor’s sensitivity improvement. We proposed a qualitative interpretation of detection mechanisms in graphene based on the theory regarding the influence of metals and substituents on the electronic systems of carbon rings and heterocyclic aromatic ligands. The analysis of detection mechanisms suggests that an increase of the electronic density in graphene by attaching a substituent and stabilization of electronic charge distribution leads to the increase of graphene sensor conductivity. The complexation of porphyrins with selected metals stabilizes the electronic system and increases the sensitivity and selectivity of porphyrin-based sensors. Our research summary and proposed conclusions allow us to better understand the mechanisms of a radical change of graphene conductivity in the presence of trace amounts of various gases.
Author Sylwia Orzechowska
Sylwia Orzechowska,,
, Andrzej Mazurek
Andrzej Mazurek,,
, Renata Świsłocka (FCEE / DCBB)
Renata Świsłocka,,
- Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology
, Włodzimierz Lewandowski (FCEE / DCBB)
Włodzimierz Lewandowski,,
- Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology
Journal seriesMaterials, ISSN 1996-1944, (N/A 140 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.95
Article number80
Keywords in Englishgraphene; electronic nose; carbon nanotubes; porphyrins; conductive polymers
ASJC Classification2500 General Materials Science
URL https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/13/1/80
Internal identifierROC 19-20
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)140
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 140.0, 14-02-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2017 = 1.285; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.972 (2) - 2018=3.532 (5)
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