Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Hormones and Other Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater Using Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification Microextraction with Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet Followed by GC-MS Detection

Urszula Kotowska , Justyna Kapelewska , Adam Kotowski , Ewelina Pietuszewska


Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (USAEME-SFOD) has been applied to isolate hormones and other emerging contaminants from groundwater samples. Simultaneously with the extraction process, derivatization in the matrix was carried out using acetic anhydride. Quantification of studied organic pollutants was done through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hormones included β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Other compounds belonged to groups of pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DIC)), antiseptics (triclosan (TRC)), preservatives (propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP)), sunscreen agents (benzophenone (BPH), and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (3MBC)), repellents (N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET)), industrial chemicals (bisphenol A (BPA), 4-t-octylphenol (4OP), 4-n-nonylphenol (4NP)). A non-toxic and inexpensive 1-undecanol was successfully used as the extraction solvent. Volume of extractant and derivatization agent, ionic strength, and time of extraction were optimized. Very low limits of detection (LoD) ranging from 0.01 to 5.9 ng/L were obtained. Recoveries ranged from 90% to 123%, with relative standard deviation being lower than 17%. The developed procedure was used to determine target compounds in groundwater collected at municipal waste landfills as well as in groundwater from wells distant from sources of pollution.
Author Urszula Kotowska
Urszula Kotowska,,
, Justyna Kapelewska
Justyna Kapelewska,,
, Adam Kotowski (FME / DACR)
Adam Kotowski,,
- Department of Automatic Control and Robotics
, Ewelina Pietuszewska
Ewelina Pietuszewska,,
Journal seriesWater, ISSN 2073-4441, (N/A 70 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.7
Keywords in Polishultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction; solidification of floating organicdroplet; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; hormones; emerging contaminants; groundwater
ASJC Classification1104 Aquatic Science; 1303 Biochemistry; 3305 Geography, Planning and Development; 2312 Water Science and Technology
Internal identifierROC 19-20
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); with publication
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 17-02-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2017 = 1.007; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.524 (2) - 2018=2.721 (5)
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